Drum Mountain is located 8 km. east of Fuzhou, stretching over 1,890 hectares. Its highest peak is 919 m above sea level. According to legend, there sits at the mountaintop a huge stone flat as a drum that produces drum-beating sound whenever it rains. Hence，the name Drum Mountain.
One of the top 10 scenic areas in Fujian, Drum Mountain boasts Dharma Eighteen Scenes, Baiyun Cave, Guling Resort, Shanxi Stream, Moxi Stream, etc. It is widely believed that a trip in Fuzhou not including the Mountain will prove to be pointless.
Of all the beautiful spots and historical sites in the mountain, nearly a hundred are domestically well-known. Yongquan Temple （Spring-gushing Temple）at the half way up the mountain, for example, is listed at the top of the five major temples in Fujian. It covers an area of 1.67 hectares with 25 halls. The temple was built in A.D. 908, with its name deriving from a spring gushing out of the ground. In its prime, there were over 1,000 monks in the temple.
The temple spread its name further as it made contribution to the development of Buddhism in China. Its founder, Master Shen Yan was conferred an honorary title of Guoshi by the King of Min; later, Master Miao Lian was favorably treated by Empress Dowager Cixi during the reign of Emperor Guangxu (1871-1908) in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911); and in modern times, Master Yuan Ying was selected as the president of the National Buddhist Association. All these testify to the crucial role the temple has played in the Buddhist circle.
The imposing temple possesses majestic shining halls and awe-inspiring Buddhist figures. The annually blossoming sago cycas trees (a species that rarely blossoms), the uninflammable wenge altar, and the blood scriptures written by generations of accomplished monks are valued as the three treasures of the temple.
These aside, over 300 age-old stone inscriptions could be found in the mountain. But most are around the Lingyuan Cave. Here with a collection of various styles, it’s a rare natural calligraphy gallery of generations of historically famous poets and scholars.
Tanshishan Cultural Ruins
Tanshishan Cultural Ruins, located in Tanshi Village, Minhou County, have a history of five to six thousand years. The Tanshishan Culture, as its name indicates, is represented by the relics unearthed in Tanshishan. Based on the lower reaches of Minjiang River, it was later spread to the rest of the province and Taiwan. It is an epitome of the primitive way of living along China’s southeastern coast. It is also the cradle of both Fujian’s ancient ocean culture and the origin of Min people in Pre-Qin period (the times before 221 BC).
The cultural ruins are acclaimed as one of the most representative of New Stone Age culture in the southeastern coast, comparable to Yangshao Culture in Henan Province and Hemudu Culture in Zhejiang Province. It has been named as one of Fujian’s top eight tourist destinations by the provincial government.
Fujian Museum, a comprehensive one at provincial level, is located in the West Lake Park of Fuzhou City. Since its establishment in April 1953, it has gradually developed into the largest of its kind in the province. The museum has a collection of over 50,000 cultural relics, among which over 360 are first-grade cultural relics, highlighting ancient works of art, archaeological discoveries and revolutionary history. They include the gilt bronze lion-shaped censer made in the Five Dynasties (A.D. 907-960), the silk clothes from the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279), the Standing Goddess of Mercy from Dehua County in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), the paintings and calligraphy scrolls of the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) Dynasties, the autograph letters of Governor Lin Zexu and Prof. Yan Fu, to name a few.
The museum consists of three exhibition halls: Hall of Ancient Cultural Relics, Hall of Revolutionary History and Hall of Mountainous and Marine Resources. The first one exhibits major archeological discoveries arranged in chronological order, with 1,085 items occupying a space of 1,000 sq. m. The second one showcases the history of Fujian people’s heroic efforts to fight against imperialism, feudalism and bureaucratic capitalism under the leadership of the CPC since May Fourth Movement in 1919. It takes up a space of 980 sq. m. with over 700 relics on display. The third one collects a large amount of material objects categorized by physical contours, mineral resources, and fauna and flora, to demonstrate the features of local natural environment and its rich resources.
Lin Zexu Memorial
Lin Zexu Memorial is located on Macao Road, Fuzhou. In 1904, the thirtieth Year of Emperor Guangxu’s reign of the Qing Dynasty, a memorial temple was built by the local people to honor Governor Lin Zexue for his anti-opium campaign and high moral conduct. In 1982, it was rebuilt as Lin Zexu Memorial, funded by the provincial and municipal governments. It is now a cultural relic site under the provincial protection and serves as a national moral education center as well.
Facing the street is the front wall of the Memorial, with two doors on its left and right side, above which are inscribed respectively “Prominent High-Ranking Official” and “Great Man of Fuzhou”. On the other side of the wall is a large-scale relief sculputure depicting the scene of “Lin’s Burning Opium in Humen”. A horizontal inscription in the upper middle of the main entrance reads “Hall of Lin the Cultured and Faithful” (his posthumous title). Further inside is the second door, gilded and with a couplet extolling his widespread influence. On both sides are corridors connecting these two doors, along which official post boards and ceremonial flags were lined up. And in the courtyard, a stone pavement is flanked by stone sculptures of guardians, horses, tigers, and goats, creating a solemn atmosphere. A stone footpath leads from the second door to the Imperial Stele Pavilion, to the north of which is the memorial hall. Inside the hall, right in the middle, are a statue of Governor Lin and the tablet of “Fortune and Longevity” written by Emperor Daoguang (1782-1850), together with many other couplets and tablets autographed by a large number of men of celebrity. Also on display are pictures about Lin’s life story and his poems, articles, letters and manuscripts.
China Shipyard Culture Museum
China Shipyard Culture Museum （formerly China Modern Navy Museum） is a 5-floor building at the foot of Maxian Hill. It covers an area of 4,100 sq. m, among which 3,500 sq. m are for the exhibition halls. The museum was built in 1997 but renamed in 2005.
To promote the shipyard culture, the Government of Mawei Development Zone has invested over RMB 6 million to renovate the museum since 2004 and gave its current name.
The five floors in the Museum show five different facets of the shipyard culture. On the first, a large bas-relief presents a vivid portrayal of the essence of the culture. The second one is an overview of the culture, epitomizing its progress and achievements by memorials submitted to the throne, submarine cable and other related materials. The theme of the third floor’s exhibition features the Rising of Science and Education, illustrating the important position of the shipyard academy in China’s modern industry as the first of its kind in China. On the fourth floor is Industry Forerunners, emphasizing Fujian shipyard as a crucial place for bringing up the first Chinese industrial workers. The fifth is Navy’s Foundation, demonstrating the fact that Mawei is the birthplace of China’s modern navy. Dr. Sun Yat-sen once extolled Fujian shipyard as Chinese Navy’s very foundation.
After its renovation, the museum houses some additional 300 pieces of cultural relics. The rich exhibits and its way of exhibition have won applause from the experts of the same circle.
Fuzhou General Factory of Carving & Handicraft
Fuzhou General Factory of Carving & Handicraft, also called Fujian Carving Art Center, is located in Mid. Liuyi Rd in Fuzhou. Founded in 1954, the Factory is a key business of arts & crafts and serves as a gateway for cultural exchanges between Fuzhou and the rest of the world.
The Factory specializes in producing and dealing in Shoushan Stone Carving, wood carving and tourist souvenirs. It boasts a strong professional team, a large number of which are masters of Chinese arts & crafts and renowned artists. Its crafts have so far won three Gold Cups and two Silver Cups of Hundred Flowers Award of Chinese Arts & Crafts. Many of them have been stored up in the National Museum or by the collectors from home and abroad.
The craftworks in its art gallery, reputed as the Oriental Art Palace, number in thousands.
Three Lanes and Seven Alleys
Lanes and alleys in Fuzhou, preserved since the Tang (618-907) and Song (960-1279) Dynasties, represent one of the many important symbols of this renowned historic city. Among them, the most famous are the Three Lanes and Seven Alleys, lined on both sides of the Nanhou Street.
Located in the city center, they cover an area of 40 hectares. An abundance of cultural relics can still be found in this centuries-old neighborhood, which mainly comprises former residences of historic celebrities and architectures of the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) Dynasties.
Featuring flagstone paths, white walls, black tiles and fine craftsmanship, the residence block epitomizes the ancient style of the ordinary abodes and the culture of Minjiang River, accredited as a large-scale architecture museum of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
Xichan Temple, a key one in China, is one of the five major temples in Fuzhou. Located at the foot of Yishan Hill in the west outskirts, it was built in the Six Dynasties period (220-589) and rebuilt in A.D. 867.
Covering an area of 7.7 hectares, the litchi-rich temple has 36 major buildings, including the Heavenly Guardians Hall, the Main Hall of Sakyamuni, the Lecture Hall, Depositary of Buddhist Scriptures, and the Jade Buddha Tower. It also houses such cultural relics as the Seven-Star Well dug in the Tang Dynasty (618-906), the Bhaishajyaguru （Medicine Buddha） Sutra written by Emperor Kangxi (1662-1723) of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), and frescos painted in the Qing Dynasty.
The Jade Buddha Tower is dedicated to two jade Sakyamuni sculptures: a 2.3-meter-high sitting figure and a 4-meter-long reclining one of 10 tons, the largest of its kind in China. And in the Avalokitesvara Pavilion, there stands a statue of 1,000-hand-and-1,000-eye Goddess of Mercy, cast with 29 tons of bronze, peerless in China.
The temple has been enjoying good reputation overseas for long. For now, it is still keeping close contact with Siong Lim Temple in Sigapore, Shuangqing Temple in Penang of Malaysia, Putuo Temple in Vietnam and many others in the world.
Fuzhou Forest Park
As one of the nine national forest parks in China, Fuzhou Forest Park, located at Chiqiao Village, Xindian Town in northern suburbs of Fuzhou, is 7 km. away from the city proper with a total area of 859 hectares. The park is surrounded on three sides by hills and flanked on one side by a river. Penrack Peak in the north has an altitude of 634 m, while Bayi Reservoir in the south is only 47 m above sea level.
The park is divided into five parts themed respectively for Central Asian tropical evergreen broadleaf, South Asian tropical rainforest, banyan trees, wild fruit trees, and coastal mangrove, with more than 2,500 species of plants from home and abroad. Also in the park are rare and precious plants garden, cycad garden, Chinese rose and camellia garden, and potted plants garden.
The king banyan tree in Fuzhou reigns on the meadow by the Bayi Reservior. A symbol of the city, it is 930 years old and 20 metres high with a perimeter of 10 m Its crown spreads over 1,330 sq. m, offering shade to some 1,000 people at one time in summer.
To enrich the forest tour, other entertaining programs have been introduced in recent years, including birds’ show, barbecue, slideway, animal performance, and travel in dragon-shaped tourist vehicle.
Fuzhou Panda World
Located at the foot of Dameng Hill in the west of Fuzhou, and close to the picturesque West Lake, Fuzhou Panda World covers an area of 5 hectares. It is home to pandas (a rare mammal in the world) and other similar species like bears and raccoons. It also keeps resident and migrant birds in 13 families, 20 genera and 22 species. Apart from Beijing and Sichuan (the birthplace of panda), it is the only panda conservation along China’s southeastern coast, combining scientific research, education, and tourism.
Fuzhou Panda World consists of ten parts: Panda House, Ailurus Fulgens House, Bears Zone, Panda Museum, Panda Cinema, Panda Gallery, Butterfly Zone, Panda Garden, Children’s World and Panda Resort. The Panda Resort is situated in the nearly 1,000-meter-high Drum Mountain, 25 km. away from the downtown area. The Panda World enjoys its popularity home and abroad for its unique scientific way of panda breeding, training, reproducing, and cloning as well as the facilities for spreading scientific knowledge.
Minjiang Park (North Part)
Extending 5.5 km. along the northern bank of Minjiang River, Minjiang Park (the North Part) covers a total area of 44.24 hectares from the crossway of Jiangbin Road and Yangqiao Road to Sanxianzhou Bridge. It is made up of seven scenic zones: Xihe Garden, Jinjiang Garden, Jinsha Garden, Wanglong Garden, Binfen Garden, Minfeng Garden and Minshui Garden, featuring unique Minjiang River culture. Following the principle of pursuing artistic and people-friendly effects, it is designed and built to provide a large green waterfront with a strong local taste for tourism.
Minjiang Park (South Part)
Minjiang Park (the South Part) extends 3.3 km. from Jinshan Bridge to Hongshan Bridge, covering a total area of 33.2 hectares. It reflects the natural and cultural features of the Minjiang River.
The South Part, which is based on the original landform and vegetation, is aimed at bringing forth a natural and ecological scenery with a harmonious co-existence between man and nature. It consists of eight scenic areas: Coconut Trees in the Sunshine, Lotus Pond in the Moonlight, Riverside Leisure Time, Dream Pastoral, Zenan Ark Sq., Children's World, Lane of Flowers, and Glamour of Minjiang River. And a 4-metre-wide and 800-meter-long walkway will help you navigate in the park. While strolling on the beach, one can enjoy the magnificent view of modern architectures reflected on the river.
A total of 65 sculptures by artists from home and abroad are on permanent display in the park. As part of China International City Sculpture Exhibition (Fuzhou 2003), these works of art differ in technique and subject matter, illustrating their distinctive styles of 14 participating countries and regions and providing a chance for people to admire the diversified aesthetic cultures in the world.
Exhibition Hall of Zheng He’s Historical Relics and Shengshou Pagoda
The Exhibition Hall of Zheng He’s Historical Relics, a replica of the imperial architecture in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), is located in Zheng He Park of Changle City. It covers a total area of 3,378 sq. m, with a floor space of 1,387 sq. m. Precious historical relics reflecting Zheng He’s seven expeditions are on display. “The Monument to Zheng He”, one of the most precious relics in the hall, was erected in 1431 before Zheng made his seventh voyage to the west. The 1,177-character stele, the only one of its kind, recorded in detail Zheng He’s accomplishment in his six voyages to the west and in particular, his seventh mission.
Behind the hall is a 27.4-meter-high 7-storied octagonal stone pagoda, Shengshou Pagoda (Shengshou means Viva the Emperor). Construction of the pagoda started in 1096 and was completed in 1117. On its walls, you’ll find delicate reliefs relating stories about Buddhism. And once on the second storey, the pagoda name in Chinese characters on a horizontal board will meet your eyes. As legend goes, Zheng He was very unhappy with the name when he learned that the pagoda was built to pray for the longevity of Emperor Huizhong (1082-1135). Emperor Huizhong, in his mind, was a fatuous and self-indulgent ruler who was captured by Jin People from the North China and died there eventually. So the pagoda was once renamed “Three-Peak Pagoda” by him in 1413. Now, both Shengshou Pagoda and the Monument to Zheng are inscribed on the list of national cultural relics under preservation.
Mawei Shipbuilding Ltd.
Mawei Shipbuilding Ltd., formerly called Fujian Shipyard, was the largest shipbuilding base in the Far East when founded in 1866. Located in the Fuzhou Mawei Economic & Technological Development Zone at the lower reaches of Minjiang River, the Company plays a significant role in shipbuilding industry in Fujian Province. It covers a total area of 330,000 sq. m, 270,000 of which serves for production.
The Company is equipped with CAD/CAM network, a 15,000 DWT shipway, a 3,000 DWT shipway and a 12,000 DWT drydock. There are a pre-treatment line of steel plate with an annual handling capacity of 20,000 tons, a 274-meter outfitting wharf and a leased rail connected to Fuzhou-Mawei Railway. Six overhead cranes with the capability of 15-40 tons, a 100-ton overhead crane and 1,446 sets of equipment of various types are also available. The Company has strong capability of designing, building and repairing ships of over 10,000 tons.
What it builds include harbor boat, purse seiner, trawler, large horsepower tugboat, dry cargo carrier, oil tanker and multi-purpose container cargo vessel, which are built in line with the standards of the world-famous classification societies like CCS, ABS, LR and GL, as well as other non-shipping products such as large-scale steel structure, steel framed products for land use, etc.
Fuzhou Software Park
As a key engineering project of both Fuzhou City and Fujian Province, Fuzhou Software Park is one of the 14 national software industry bases approved by the Ministry of Science and Technology. It consists of two parts: Software Center and Software Industrial Base.
The Software Center, a modern high-rise complex, is located on the Second Ring road, featuring computer software display and R&D, personnel training and intelligent offices. The main functions of the Center are as follows; （i） integration of production, study, research and marketing；（ii） a window on foreign exchanges ;（iii） a training center for computer software technicians; （iv） a trading center of computer software;（v） an R&D center of computer software.
The Software Industrial Base is situated on Wufengshan Hill in the northwest of the city with a planned area of 80 hectares, consisting of the industrial development area, residential quarters and gardens. The Base will mainly serve as a production base and a software testing center for the software enterprises. Its residential quarters are for managerial staff and technicians. Taking advantage of its unique natural environment, it is projected to be an ecological and sustainable sci-tech park, which is characterized by intelligent management and network. The self-contained park will have all necessary facilities for R&D, production, living, entertainment and sightseeing.
Fujian Newland Computer Co., Ltd.
Fujian Newland Computer Co., Ltd. got listed on Shenzhen Stock Exchange on Aug. 7, 2000. The company commites itself to computer peripheral equipment R&D, professional application software and computer integrated system services. It has won the Level A qualification in computer system integration awarded by the Ministry of Information Industry.
Widely known as an innovative company, Fujian Newland enjoys a strong R&D capability and ample experience in accelerating commercialization. The company has for the past decade undertaken 6 projects listed on the National Torch Program, 3 national Key Projects for the National Ninth Five-Year Plan Period and 11 projects on Fujian Torch Program. It has been granted 13 patents in China.
Since its establishment, Fujian Newland has maintained a momentum of rapid growth in terms of major corporate economic indicators. It has grown into a listed high-tech company focusing on system integration and professional application software. Fujian Newland is not only an industry leader in the province, but also ranks high among the top private high-tech companies in China. It has built up its reputation among customers.
CPT Display Technology (Fujian) Ltd.
Located in the Mawei Scientific & Technological Park, CPT Display Technology （Fujian） Ltd. was established in February 2004 as a subsidiary of Chuanghwa Picture Tubes Ltd.
The solely Taiwan-invested company is engaged in R&D, design, manufacture, sales and after-sale service of FPD, LCD, module and spare parts. The main products are 15”, 17” and 19” LCD modules. Large-size LCD TV module is to be introduced in accordance with the market demand. Thanks to its internationally advanced technology and unique production procedures and system, its products are competitive in the international market in terms of quality and price.
Adhering to the corporate culture of Honesty, Integrity, Industry and Frugality and the corporate philosophy of Innovation, Perfection, Teamwork and Vision, CPT Display Technology (Fujian) Ltd. devotes itself to promoting the development of the upstream and downstream industry and boosting the growth of regional economy and the advancement of visual telecommunication industry in China.
Top Victory Electronics (Fujian) Co., Ltd.
Founded in December 1990 in Fuqing Rongqiao Economic & Technological Development Zone of Fuzhou, Top Victory Electronics （Fujian） Co., Ltd. is a large-scale high-tech enterprise jointly invested by PEN Holdings of Taiwan and Sam Lin Group of Indonesia. The Company specializes in R&D, manufacturing and marketing of computer monitors. It covers an area of 26.67 hectares, with a floor space of 81,000 sq. m. It has a staff of 7,000 and is ranked second in the world in terms of its output. The total investment reaches US$ 80million, with registered capital of US$ 40million. Its total value of assets amounts to US$ 400 million.
Following the market-oriented strategy with its focus on product quality and R&D, the Company has made great achievements in all endeavors. It was granted ISO9002 and ISO9001 Quality Management Certificate in 1993 and 1994 respectively. In 1997 it became the first in the monitor industry to pass ISO14001 Environmental Management Certification. It obtained ISO9001: 2000 Quality Management Certificate in 2002. In 2000, it was ranked 27th among the top 500 Chinese companies in terms of import & export volume by the then Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation. Also in the same year, it was placed in the 6th among the top 10 Chinese companies in terms of revenue generated from exports （the only one from Fujian Province to be among the top 10）. According to the statistics of the Ministry of Information Industry, it was ranked 4th out of all the ventures with foreign involvement in the electronic & information industry in 2001.
Qingkou Automobile City
Located in Qingkou Town, Minhou County, Qingkou Automobile City enjoys convenient geographic location with easy access to Fuzhou-Xiamen Expressway, National Highway 324, East-South Beijing-Fuzhou Expressway, and South-North Tongjiang-Sanya Expressway. And it is 25 km. away from downtown Fuzhou, 38 km. away from Changle International Airport and 12 km. from Mawei Port.
Within the total planned area of 33 sq. km., there are 185 foreign-invested enterprises, 145 of which have been put into operation, with a total investment of US$ 1.085 billion, an automobile manufacturing base thus coming into being. In the base, Southeast Motors is the lead enterprise and other upstream and downstream enterprises are playing the supporting role. The annual output capacity for the Southeast Motors reaches 150,000 vehicles. There are 149 auxiliary factories, among which 37 are of first grade and 112 of second and third grade.
Driven by the participation of world automobile magnate, an automobile industrial cluster has taken shape. Minhou County is seizing the opportunities to accelerate the DaimlerChrysler and China Engine projects. Continuous efforts will be devoted to introducing more upstream and downstream auxiliary enterprises to extend the industrial chains, making the cluster even stronger. During the 11th Five-Year Plan period, an ecological industrial park will be formed in the Automobile City on the western Taiwan Straits.
Fuyao Glass Industry Group Co., Ltd.
Founded in Fuzhou in 1987, Fuyao Glass Industry Group Co., Ltd. (Fuyao Group) is a sino-foreign joint venture specialized in production of automobile safety glass and industrial glass. It was listed in Shanghai Stock Exchange in 1993, the first among all its Chinese counterparts.
Fuyao Group has over 7,000 employees. Its total assets have increased from 6.27 million yuan in 1987 to more than 7.5 billion yuan now. It has set up subsidiaries and offices across the world to become a multinational company. Its market competitiveness lies in its high-quality products, advanced R&D centers, and well-equipped production line coupled with huge productivity. While playing a dominant role in the domestic auto glass market, Fuyao Group has made steady headway into the international market and gained a strong foothold.
Juncao Research Institute of Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University
In 1983, Professor Lin Zhanxi invented Juncao techniques. Juncao Research Institute was then set up in Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University.
Before the 1980s, many species of edible or medicinal fungi, such as shiitake and jelly fungus were still cultivated mainly from broadleaf wood. With the overexploitation of the broadleaf forests, there emerged a conflict between mushroom growing and forest preservation, which arrested further development of mushroom industry. The invention of Juncao techniques has solved such conflict, and enables fast and sustainable mushroom growing.
Juncao Research Institute has successfully undertaken many national and provincial projects on research, application and dissemination of Juncao technology, such as Papua New Guinea Program of aid, China TCDC international training courses, Western China Development project and Poverty Reduction Initiatives. The Institute has achieved a lot in all these efforts.
Xitou Village lies in the northeast of Baisha Town in Minhou County, covering 4.86 sq. km., of which 178.67 hectares is cultivated land. The village governs 7 hamlets and 9 villagers groups with a population of 3,316. In 2005, the per capita income was 5,800 yuan and the financial revenue was RMB 200,000.
The village sets a good example as a forerunner in the new countryside construction drive in Minhou County. It joined hands with Baisha Village and Minxing Company to decvelop a new Baisha Town out of the waste land. The new town covers an area of more than 17 hectares. It has 19 high-rise apartment buildings and such public facilities as bus stops, schools, kindergartens, shopping centers, etc. So far, 400 households including those from the neighboring areas have moved into these new apartments, living a quasi-urban life. A park with an area of 13 hectares has also been built by the river, providing an ideal place for relaxation and leisure.
Jiangyin Port is at the southern part of Jiangyin Peninsular in Fuqing County. It is an international container and bulk cargo transit port. Its 7.1-kilometer-long deep-water coastline proves favorable for 30 deep-water berths, part of which can be made to accommodate 200,000-300,000-ton ships. Open to business are Berth 1, 2, 3 in the container wharf which can accomodate 50,000-ton ship and a coal wharf for 70,000-ton vessels. Another dozen of berths are still under construction and construction of the supporting infrastructure, like transport service, and water, electricity and gas supply, is in full swing.
The first international container shipping line was linked with West Africa in October, 2003. So far, seven international lines have been opened, connecting to America, West Africa, Europe, Japan, South Korea, Middle East, and Southeast Asia. Ships also ply between Jiangyin Port and Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. Its shipping service is not just confined to other coastal cities in the province, but has been expanded to cover those landlocked areas in the province and beyond. The container throughput has increased from 10,000 TEU in 2003 to 196,000 TEU in 2006.